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April 16th, 2013

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Author Topic: Sh. ibn Ajiba: Basic Research travel & visiting Shaykhs
Posts: 192
Post Sh. ibn Ajiba: Basic Research travel & visiting Shaykhs
on: April 20, 2013, 14:26

Shaykh Ahmad ibn 'Ajiba (Qutb)-Darqawiyyah: Basic Research

The seventh rule concerning travel and visiting Shaykhs

Know that travelling has courtesies which are requested at the beginning and courtesies which are requested afterwards. The courtesy of the beginning is 'Istikhara' because the Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace, said, 'The one who does Istikhara will not be turned away, and the one who asks counsel will not regret it.'

Al-Bukhari said from Jabir, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace, used to teach us Istikhara in the same way that he taught us the Fatiha.

He said that if anyone wants to do something important, let him do two raka'as and then say, ' O Allah, I seek good from You by Your knowledge, and I ask You for strength by Your power. I ask You for some of Your great and sublime overflowing. You have power and I do not. You know and I do not know, and You are the Knower of the unseen. 0 Allah, if You know that my situation is of benefit to me in my Deen and in my life, and my final end, be it sooner or later, then decree it for me and make it easy and bless me in it. But if you know that my situation is bad for me in my Deen and the rest of my life, then divert it from me, and divert me from it, and destine the good for me wherever it may be and accept it from me. You have power over all things.'

The two raka'as must be done using the Surah of the Kafirun and the Surah Ikhlas and Istikhara must be repeated three times, or seven times if the matter is very important.'

And one must ask counsel if one has a Shaykh, and must not travel without his permission, and if one does not have a Shaykh then it is best to seek advice from someone who is known for right action among the right-acting scholars, and from the parents.

One must travel with good intention and must not travel for this world and just to make an excursion. We will speak more about this if Allah wills. There is goodness according to intention.

The Pole, Shaykh al-Mashish said to Abu'l Hasan, 'Do not move your feet except where you expect the turning of Allah. Do not sit except where you are safe from disobeying Allah. Do not keep company except with the one who will help you to obey Allah. Do not choose for yourself anyone except the one who will increase you in certainty, and they are very few.'

Part of the courtesy of travelling also is to take a companion. In some hadith it is said, 'Take the companion before the path.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace, advised against travelling alone. He said, 'A single rider is one shaytan. Two riders are two shaytans, and three are a procession.'

He must not travel except with his own people, nor keep company with any except those who bring him near his Lord. In the hadith, when the Companions asked, 'Who shall we keep company with, 0 Messenger of Allah?' He said, 'The one who when you see him reminds you of Allah, and whose speech increases your knowledge, and whose actions remind you of the next world.' The meaning of 'to sit with' is to keep company with in general, and is applicable to travelling.

Another part of the courtesy of travelling is to pay debts and to return what has been left with you, or if there is no hurry, to leave someone in charge of it. If he has done something wrong, he should go and free himself of it, because he does not know whether he will return or not. He should also be prepared to take a skin of water from which to do wudu.

As-Salmi said, 'The traveller must take a water-skin for purification.' Then he said, 'I heard my father, may Allah have mercy on him saying, "One of the Shaykhs, if he met travellers, used to greet them. Then he would check their hands and fingers to see if they had the traces of carrying the water-skin and if he found these traces he would welcome them well, but if not, he would not welcome them well." '

One of the sufis said, 'If you see the sufi and he does not have water with him, then know that he is determined to leave the prayer and to reveal his private parts, whether he wants to or not.'

The traveller must also take with him the stick, needle, thread, scissors, knife, those things that will help him fulfil his obligations as he is requested. If he wants to travel he must also go around his brothers and tell them of his journey, and say goodbye to them. He must also visit the ones with whom he has been keeping company. This was the courtesy of the Shaykhs with regard to what was required at the beginning of travel.

Also required was four raka'as of prayer before beginning. Adh-Dhilmi reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace, when he wanted to travel used to pray four raka'as, and in every raka'a he read Surah Fatiha and Surah al-Ikhlas.

When he had said the salam he used to say, '0 Allah, I come nearer to You by them so make them my khalif for my family and my wealth.' When he rose from sitting down to travel he said, '0 Allah, by You I spread, and towards You I am oriented, and by You I am immune. 0 Allah, You are my trust and my hope.

O Allah be enough for me above what bothers me and that with which I am not bothered and above what You know better than me, and give me a provision of taqwa of You, and forgive me my wrong actions and direct me towards goodness wherever I turn.' Then he would read the Surahs al-Kafirun, al-Ikhlas, and the last two surahs. He would say goodbye to his family and Companions and neighbours. He would say, 'I leave you in the hands of Allah, and whatever is stored with Him is not lost.'

They would say to him, 'May Allah provide you with taqwa and forgive your wrong action and make goodness easy for you wherever you are.'

There is also the recitation of the wird of travel which is:
10 - Astagfirullah
10 - The short prayer on the Prophet
10 - Allah is enough for me and there is no power and no strength except with Allah.

This is how we learned it from our Shaykhs. And our Shaykh added ten repetitions of 'In the name of Allah the Merciful the Compassionate', and said it must be said after the prayer on the Prophet.

This wird is a protection and a fortress in every travel, it is said, even if it is only a short trip. It is better to say it before saying goodbye.

If he has a mount, he says when he puts his foot in the stirrup, 'In the name of Allah', and when he is seated on its back Praise belongs to Allah. Glory be to the one who provided this for us, and to our Lord we will return. Glory be to You, I have wronged myself. Forgive me no one forgives wrong actions except You.' This is how at-Tirmidhi reported it.

Another one added, 'Praise be to Allah who carries us on land and sea and has provided us with goodness and has preferred us over much of what He has created. O Allah, we ask You in this, our travel, right action and taqwa and actions with which You are pleased. O Allah, make our travel easy and make us obedient after it. O Allah, You are our companion in travel, the Khalif of our family O Allah I seek refuge by You from the hardships of travel and the sadness of the return, and from bad vision in wealth and family'

He must then say, 'Allah is Great' and 'Glory be to Allah' and 'Praise belongs to Allah Thirty three times each and sav There is no God but Allah' once When he has started to travel he is requested to invoke Allah and to reflect and to look at the Majesty of Allah.

As soon as he sees some thing, he knows Who made it, and Who is its Master. If he goes up on a high hill he says, 'Allah is Greater’ and when he descends into a valley he says, 'Glory belongs to Allah’ .

If his mount slips away from him, he says, 'O slaves of Allah, stop it’. If he sees a village or a town he says, 'O Lord of the seven heavens and what they shade, O Lord of the seven earths and how insignificant they are and the Lord of the Shayateen and how they have strayed off the path, and 0 Lord of the wind and what it has blown, I ask of You the benefit of this village and of its people, and I seek refuge in You from its evil and the evil of its people and whatever evil there is in it.'

Once he arrives at the town or village he puts his hand on its wall and reads three times Surah al-Quraysh If he says that, his body will remain sound until he leaves it.

When he enters it he says, O Allah, bless it for us' three times, 'O Allah provide us with its fruits and protect us from its contamination, and make us likeable to its people and make us like the right-acting one among its people.'

Posts: 192
Post Re: Sh. ibn Ajiba: Basic Research travel & visiting Shaykh
on: April 20, 2013, 17:33


We will see the rest of this courtesy The faqir must have a firm grip on this courtesy of the Prophet, it is a proof of love. Allah the Exalted said, 'Say: If you love Allah then follow me, and Allah will love you.' And Allah the Exalted knows best Then the author talks about the wisdom of their travel and its purpose and
he says:

Their School in travel through countries is to visit the Shaykhs and the brothers. Then, to acquire knowledge and hadith or for repayment of obligations or contemplation, Or for obscurity, or to negate position, or to the Prophet or to the House of Allah.

I say that the practice of the fuqara at their beginning, is to travel in various lands and not to stay in their homeland. The author has said ten things concerning this:

1. The first is that they travel to visit the Shaykhs. This the greatest reason after Hajj and to visit the Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace. This is because of what is in it of increase and acquiring praiseworthy attributes and getting rid of blameworthy attributes, and the acquiring of knowledge and States. The amount of overflowing in it is so great that only Allah knows its extent.

We will examine some of it if Allah wills. Abu Razeen, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace, said, 'Visit for Allah. Whoever visits for Allah seventy thousand angels go with him saying, "O Allah, unite him as he has united in You." And a caller calls, "May you be ennobled, and your steps, and may you have a chosen place in the garden." '

What the author has mentioned refers to a visit from people who are alive. As far as the dead are concerned, whoever has a Shaykh of Instruction does not need to visit anyone else, dead or alive.

At-Tujibi said, 'To visit the dead ones is not the path of the sufis.' I say that is so, because the sufis are rich with the live ones, and they only visit the dead ones to supplicate for them and ask mercy on them. Whoever has no Shaykh of Instruction must visit the dead ones a lot because the most that the dead can do for him is to guide him to the truth. On this subject, the right-acting Shaykh Abu Ishaq Sidi Ibrahim at-Tazi said:

To visit the masters of fearful awareness is a cure
And the key to the doors of guidance and goodness.
It brings to the empty breast a will,
It opens a breast which has shrunk from the
vastness of the burden.
It gives victory to the one who has been wronged and it raises the one unknown.
It acquires the non-existent and it heals the one who is broken.
How many times it has freed a murderer from the abyss
of wrong action,
And thrown him into the ocean of those who
The Basic Research
are deputies and right-acting.
How many a murid has it made win an instructor,
Expert, with insight into the trial and into what cures.
So he puts over him a Yemani robe, embroidered
With Fatihah, success, and victory.
So hurry to it, people have declared its secret.
They have counselled with it, 0 friend,
in secret and in the open.
Visit and be courteous, after clarifying your purpose,
The behaviour of the owned one with the free owner.
There is no difference in its rule from the wayfaring
Instructor and a majdhoub, or those alive and those dead.
Or between one who is zahid and a worshipper,
each receives overflowing.
But the sun is not like the moon.

2. The second reason for travel is to visit the brothers. There is no doubt that travelling to visit the brothers is a great nearness, and is the best sort of travelling. Allah the Exalted said, 'Whoever befriends Allah and His Messenger, and those who believe - the party of Allah are the victorious.' The meaning of 'Those who trust' is those who support the Deen, who give counsel of the slaves of Allah, and these are the fuqara who are oriented towards Allah. Whoever meets them receives counsel from them and is made to remember Allah. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace, said, 'Allah the Exalted says, "My mercy becomes written for those who love each other for Me, those who sit with each other and visit each other for Me, those who exchange for Me." ' This was reported by Malik. He also said, may Allah bless him and give him peace, that, 'In the garden there are houses whose inward can be seen from their outward, and whose outward can be seen from their inward. Allah has prepared them for those who love each other for Him, visit each other for Him, and exchange for Him.' Tabarani reported it.

From Abu Huraira, may Allah be pleased with him, from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace, 'A man visited a brother of his in another village, and Allah the Exalted sent an angel to him, and when he came to him he said to him, "Where are you going?" "I want to visit a brother of mine in that village."

He said, "Do you have anything that you want back from him?" The man said, "No, I love him in Allah." Then the angel said, "I am a messenger from Allah to you. Allah loves you like you love your brother."

Reported by Muslim. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace, also said, 'Whoever visits a sick man, or his brother in Allah, a caller calls on him and says, "May you and your steps be ennobled" ' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace, also said, 'Any slave who visits his brother for Allah, is called by a caller from the heavens who says, "May you be pleased, and may the Garden be pleasing to you." ' Allah the Exalted says that 'In the Unseen Kingdom of My Throne, My slave visits me, and I will reward him.' And He is not pleased with any reward for him but the garden.

'Abdullah ibn Nasa'ud said to his companions when they came to him, 'Do you sit with each other?' They said, 'We never do otherwise.' He said, 'Do you visit each other?' They said, 'Yes, O Abu 'Abd ar-Rahman, a man among us who loses his brother goes walking to the end of kufr until he finds him.' He replied, 'You are well as long as you are doing this.'

3. The third reason the sufis travel is to acquire beneficial knowledge. There is no doubt that travelling to acquire knowledge is obligatory. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace, said, 'To seek knowledge is an obligation upon every muslim.'

He also said, 'The one who has travelled a path in order to find knowledge, Allah makes easy for him the path to the Garden.' He also said, 'Anyone who goes out of his house seeking knowledge, the angels lay down their wings in pleasure with what he has done.'

From Qubaysa, may Allah be pleased with him, who said, 'I went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace, and he said to me, "What has brought you, O Qubaysa" I said, "I have grown old and my bones have become brittle, and I have come to you so that you may teach me what will benefit me with Allah." He said, "O Qubaysa you have not passed by rocks or trees or earth but they have asked forgiveness for you." 'The Prophet also said, may Allah bless him and give him peace, 'Whoever sets out wanting to learn knowledge for Allah, a door upon the Garden is opened for him and the angels lay their shoulders down for him, and the angels of the heavens and the fish in the oceans pray upon him.

The scholar has more benefit than the worshipper, like a full moon compared to the smallest star in the sky. The scholars are the inheritors of the Prophets. They did not inherit a dirham nor a dinar, but they inherited knowledge.

Whoever takes knowledge has taken an abundant portion. The death of the scholar is a disaster that cannot be healed, and a crack that cannot be repaired. The death of a whole tribe may more easily be borne than his death.'

The meaning of 'knowledge' in the hadith is beneficial knowledge. That is the knowledge of the Presence of Allah and His Attributes. The meaning of 'the worshipper' that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace, compared the scholar to, is the one who knows how to fulfil his obligations. There is no doubt that the worship by the ignorant is not equal to that by one who knows. The scholar who has knowledge of Allah is the friend of Allah, and the scholar who has knowledge of wisdoms of Allah is the scholar who is acting and who is sincere. Allah the Exalted knows best.

....................... much more to come yet ..!!!

Posts: 192
Post Re: Sh. ibn Ajiba: Basic Research travel & visiting Shaykh
on: April 20, 2013, 17:33


4. The fourth reason that the sufis travel is to acquire the hadith of the Prophet may Allah bless him and give him peace. To travel in order to acquire these hadith is like travelling to acquire knowledge, because they are the source of knowledge. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace, said, 'May Allah give excellence to a man who has heard from us something and transmitted it as he heard it. Perhaps, the one who transmits it is more aware than the one who hears it.'

5. The fifth reason to travel for the sufis is to stop wrong action. To travel for this purpose is an obligation, and for the faqir it is Deen or a settlement, or one of the rights of the rights of the slaves. He travels to stop it or to free himself of it. This is how as-Salmi mentioned it. He went on to say, 'Then to seek hadith and to reflect, then for the exercise of the self, and then for hidden invocation.' Shaykh Zarruq said in his interpretation, 'To stop some slaves from wronging others and to change evil for good is for those who can, as long as it does not diminish them in Deen.'

I say that if he explained it as to stop the matter with forgiveness and putting things right, it would have been nearer. That is for the perfect ones among them. Then he said, 'One wants to flee from wrong-action because the mumin does not diminish himself. And Allah the Exalted said, " O My slave, those who have trust - My earth is vast, so worship Me." And he also said, "Is not the earth of Allah vast, that you may travel in it." One wants to flee from the place where wrong action happened, like Ibrahim ibn Adam's flight, may Allah be pleased with him, from his land, and others.'

There is a hadith about the man who killed ninety-nine people. When he killed the hundredth, he was guided to turn to Allah, and it was said to him, 'Leave your land. It is a land of evil.' All of this is acceptable, but what the author has said is the purpose. And Allah the Exalted knows best.

6. The sixth reason that the sufis travel is contemplation of what he sees in his travel of mountains, rivers, springs, oceans, trees, fruits, different created beings. We have already seen that he must intend this at the beginning of his travel.

7. The seventh reason that the sufi travels is for the purpose of burying himself in obscurity or to negate reputation. Sincerity is not realised until a man is diminished in the eyes of people, and they are diminished in his eyes. There is no doubt that if a man is alone in lands where he is not known, he will be secure from appearance. To bury oneself in obscurity is the purpose of the sufis in the beginning. It is noticed in the end.

8. The eighth reason for which the sufis travel is to negate reputation. This is very near to burial in obscurity. The difference is that the one who is buried in obscurity is one who has no reputation anyway, and wants to remain like that, and to negate reputation is for the one who has a reputation and wants to remove it. If he travels to a place where no one knows him, then his obscurity is realised. He must keep his name secret and hide his state so that he is not known. If he is known, whatever he fled from will come to him. The meaning of 'harmful reputation' is what is not straight or the reputation from which one fears evil or occupation or the reputation to which the self inclines. To be content under the shade of might is a great obstacle.

9. The ninth reason for which the sufis travel is to visit the Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace. This is one of the great nearnesses and the highest degrees. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace, said, 'Whoever visits me in Madinah must have my intercession.' And the one upon whom we ask blessings and peace also said, 'One does not get ready for travel except for three things: The mosques of Makkah, Madinah and the 'Aqsa.'

10. The tenth reason the sufis travel is to visit the House of Allah and to stand on 'Arafat, and this is an obligation for whoever can, and is desirable for the others, once they have performed the other obligations. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace, said, 'Whoever comes as a pilgrim to this House and was not immoral or obscene, will leave his wrong actions until he is like the day he was delivered from his mother.' Shaykh Zarruq, may Allah be pleased with him, said, 'All of these things need the renewal of the intention to realise the purpose, because the self is treacherous, and there are disasters.' Contemplate this in the story of Ahmad ibn Arqam.

His self sought Jihad and he became amazed, and he said, 'Really, my self, you are ordering me to good. This is amazing.' Then he asked Allah the Exalted, saying, '0 Allah I believe in what you say, that the self bids to evil and that it lies. So reveal to me the reality of this matter.' Then the self said, 'O Ahmad, you kill me so many times a day that nobody notices me, so I wanted one death so that it might be said, "He died as a Shahid."' The Imam Abu Hamid, may Allah have mercy on him, said, 'Look how it accepted pride after death.'

I say that one of the benefits of travelling is good health of the body and of the heart. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace, said, 'Travel and you will gain good health and you will find goodness.' Another of the

benefits of travel is to die as a stranger. The Prophet, may Allah bless him andgive him peace, also said, 'The stranger is a Shahid and his grave becomes vast.

more to come yet ..!!

Posts: 192
Post Re: Sh. ibn Ajiba: Basic Research travel & visiting Shaykh
on: April 20, 2013, 17:34


Then the author mentions what we have already understood and he said:

Their travels are not excursions, their direction is towards Allah. Their travel is not without permission from the Shaykh, the fathers, or the brothers. It is not for asking charity, or for a man who gives and is praised.

I say that their travel was not for excursions in the land, but to please the Merciful. The purpose is concerned with gravity and realisation and discussion and fineness. They do not move their feet, except where they will find the pleasure of Allah. Their elevated yearning is connected only to Allah They are totally absent from other than Him and they face nothing with their yearning except the Beloved. They do not travel by their hearts except to the presence of the Near One who answers.

On the contrary the common folk are overpowered by the self, and their desires control them. If they move towards obedience, the self mars it and spoils their intention. It outwardly shows them obedience, and it inwardly hides treachery.

It is reported that a man came to say goodbye to Bashar al-Hafy when he wanted to go to Haijj He said 'I intend to go on Hajj, is there anything you want? Then he said to him, 'How much have you prepared to spend?' He said to him, 'Two thousand dirhams.' Then Bashar said to him 'What is it that you want out of your Hajj, an excursion, or yearning for the House desiring the pleasure of Allah?' He said, 'Wanting the pleasure of Allah' Bashar said to him, 'If you find the pleasure of Allah the Exalted, and you are in your house, and spend two thousand dirhams and are certain of the pleasure of Allah, would you do it?' The man said, 'Yes.'

Then Bashar said, 'Go and give the money to ten people who want to pay back their debts, or a poor man who wants something to live by, or to one who has a family he wants to feed or the one who is looking after an orphan and wants to make him happy If your heart is strong enough to give it all to one person, then do so If you bring happiness to the heart of a muslim man, or rescue someone who is needy or remove the affliction of someone who is needy, or help a man who has less certainty, it is better than one hundred Hajjes after the obligatory one.

Then he said to him, 'So get up and do as we order you, or tell us what is in your heart.' Then he said to him, 'O Aba Nasr, travel is stronger in my heart.' Bashar smiled and said, 'If wealth is gathered from dirty business, the self decides to spend it on something which is outward good action, and Allah the Exalted has said He will not accept any but deeds out of taqwa of Him.'

Shaykh Abu'l Hasan ash-Shadhili, may Allah be pleased with him, said, 'If Allah the Exalted is generous with His slave in his movements and his stillnesses, He prepares for him worship for Allah and hides from him the desires of the self so that he begins to move in His worship and desires are hidden from him and he pays no attention to any of them, as if he were completely separated from them.

If Allah the Exalted diminishes a slave in his movements and stillnesses. He prepares for him desires of the self and hides from him His worship. So he moves by his desires, and the worship of Allah is completely separate from him, even if outwardly there is some worship in him. These are the cases of wilayat and humiliation.' But immense sincerity and great wilayat find desires and rights for those who have inner sight because such a man is by Allah in whatever he takes or gives. Their travel is not without asking permission of the Shaykh and the parents, because travel without permission of the Shaykh has no baraka, and no journeying to Allah in it, but is a break of the contract which he has taken with his Shaykh, that he should not move except with his permission. The fuqara in the past used to ask permission about even smaller matters than this. One of the fuqara found some broad beans and brought them to the Shaykh and said, 'What shall I do with these, O master?' The Shaykh said to him, 'Break your fast with it.' Some of those who were present said, '0 master, does he even ask your counsel concerning vegetables?' He said, 'Yes. If he goes against me in anything he will not succeed.'

This concerns travel to far away places, but near travel which one must perform is an easy matter. To ask the permission of the parents is strongly recommended. Shaykh Zarruq, may Allah be pleased with him, says, 'The right of the parents is obligatory by Shari'ah except in one matter. Seeking knowledge of his state, and Jihad, and the Hajj if he has not much time left and has the means.' As-Salmi said, 'One must not travel without the agreement of the parents and teacher, so that there is no disobedience in the travel and so that there is baraka in it.'

I say that this is if they do not stop him from visiting the Shaykh. But if they do stop him from visiting the Shaykh of Instruction and keeping his company, then there is no benefit in asking them. Al-Bilali has mentioned it in the summary of the Ilhya. He mentions it in the chapter of the reality of the inward knowledge. Shaykh Sanussi said in the commentary on al-Jaziri, 'But if the self is victorious it is like the enemy Otherwise, it must be fought with strength of knowledge in action. In this case there is no question of asking permission from parents or others.' This is confirmed by the saying of Allah the Exalted, 'If they fight you to make you associate with Me what you do not know, do not obey them.'

Association is in two categories, a larger one and a lesser one. The lesser association one cannot be free of, except by keeping company with one who is free of it, and that is the Perfect Shaykh. The Qur'an is a vast ocean, and everyone takes from it according to his capacity. What is appropriate in disobeying the parents and keeping the Shaykh company is in this poem,

I do not listen to whoever counsels me
and I have a deaf ear for the jealous one,
I risk desires in Your love,
and I leave father and mother for Your pleasure.

I have heard from our Shaykhs and from others that a young man used to attend the circle of the Shaykh of our Shaykhs, Sidi Yusuf al-Fasi. The young man's father used to counsel him against it and reprimand him. Sometimes the father used to go to the Shaykh and say 'Leave my son alone.' The Shaykh used to say to him, 'My son, obey your father in everything except with regard to coming to us and being present at our circle.' This means that he had taken the path of al-Ghazali, who considered that learning the knowledge of sufism was fard 'ayn (obligatory at the source). And Allah the Exalted knows best.

When as-Salmi said, 'so that he might not be disobedient to his parents', know that to be disobedient to the parents is not merely going against their will.
Parents are in three categories:

the first are parents with abundant intellects and vast breasts. They do not get angry about things.

The second group have very little intellect and very narrow breasts. They are offended by the slightest matter. They become angry over nothing.

The third group of parents are those between the first two groups.

The first ones are disobeyed if the son travels without asking permission, even if they do not become angry. The second group are not disobeyed when he travels without permission even if they are angry The third group, when they are angry, it is a sign that they have been disobeyed


I heard this explanation from some of the scholars of Fez, and it is a good one. And Allah the Exalted knows best.

Asking permission of the brothers is a good thing, because they may accompany him on this journey. Their travel should not be in order to seek charity but for the pleasure of the Merciful or to remind the brothers or to exercise the self. The one who travels for this world has no worth with Allah.

Whoever's yearning is for what enters his belly, his worth is what comes out of it. It is better for the one who has this yearning, to remain in his house. But if there is a gift that was given to him, and he took it with the intention of the Shaykh, and he spends of it whatever is necessary, this is alright.

Travel for the one who is generous and known to be giving is bad for him because people will seek from him, and greed is very ugly and scrupulousness is very beautiful.

Sayyiduna 'Ali, may Allah ennoble his face, entered Basra and found people in the mosque and he told them to leave, until he came to Hasan al-Basri, and he saw upon him containment and guidance. He said to him, 'I will ask you, and if you answer me, I will give you. If you do not answer me I will ask you to leave as I have asked your companions.' Hasan said to him, 'Ask whatever you want.' He said to him, 'What spoils the Deen?' Hasan replied, 'Greed.' Sayyidina 'Ali said to him, 'What builds the Deen?' And Hasan said, 'Scrupulousness.' He said to him, 'Remain seated, the likes of you should speak to people.'

As-Salmi, may Allah have mercy on him, said, 'The faqir does not travel just to make an excursion or to be arrogant among people, or to seek this world, or to persevere in following desire.' Abu Turab al-Naqshabi, may Allah be pleased with him, said, 'There is nothing worse for the murid than travel in order to pursue his desire. No murid has been spoiled except by idle travels.' Allah the Exalted said, 'Do not be like the ones who went out of their villages with pride, to show off to people.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace, said, 'There will be a time when the rich ones of my community will take the Hajj as an excursion, and the middle ones as a business, and the respected ones among them to show off, and the poor ones of them to beg.' Abu Hafs Nishapuri said, 'The traveller must have three things: Avoidance of being occupied with providing sustenance and to judge the path, and to know that Allah is protecting him.'

more to follow..!

Posts: 192
Post Re: Sh. ibn Ajiba: Basic Research travel & visiting Shaykh
on: April 20, 2013, 17:35

Then the author mentioned the courtesies of arrival, and he said:

When they arrive it is better that they go to the Shaykh and then to the fuqara.

I say that part of the courtesy of the fuqara is that if they arrive in a place, whether it is the land where their Shaykh is or not, first they should go to visit its Shaykhs and great ones, and then they should go to visit its fuqara.

To visit someone first is a mark of respect, according to his Station, and the one who does not show respect will not be respected. If the fuqara go to visit a Shaykh, they must not enter his presence except believing the perfection of his wilayat. They must not enter in order to test, for then they would be deprived of the baraka. Whoever goes to see the awliya with a scale in his hand gains nothing but deprivation. Whoever goes to see them with respect and excellence of belief will get from Allah perfection of love and excellence of affection.

He must separate himself from his knowledge and his deeds and his states in the same way that he does this with his own Shaykh. He must do the same with the fuqara. He must not go to them except believing their perfection, and he must step aside from his knowledge and deeds and follow their actions and what they indicate. He must not pretend to that knowledge in their presence but must see that they have actions which are more perfect than his and a knowledge which is more perfect than his, and that he depends upon them, even if he is higher than them in the outward. He must see their deeds as more complete than his own, even if he has more completion in them.

Everything depends upon the realities, and they are inward, in the heart. He must drink from them according to his belief. He must take from their support, according to his sincerity. What we have mentioned applies to the cases where there is choice, but if there is no choice, then the fuqara must be visited first. The author's phrase 'it is better that' means that it is definitely proper courtesy to visit the Shaykh first and the fuqara afterwards, and Allah the Exalted knows best.

Then the author mentions the courtesy of meeting the Shaykh and sitting with him and speaking with him. He said: The People have courtesy here because they make their speech an answer. If the Shaykh asks them to say something, they speak, otherwise, silence is best. I say that meeting with Shaykhs has its own courtesy. When the fuqara come close to his house, they recite, 'There is no god but Allah' and invoke Allah with loud voices, and they continue in this until they arrive at the Zawiyya. That is because they glorify the relation with the sufis. Also, they do this when they are near to villages because it wakes the forgetful and the shayateen.

Part of the courtesy also is to wait for the Shaykh to come out without calling him and without sending a messenger to him, because Allah the Exalted said, 'Those who call to you from behind walls, most of them have no intellect.'

Another part of the courtesy is to kiss the hand of the Shaykh. It is a mark of respect and it is an instruction in courtesy and fear, and the poet said,

O you who want the wine of love
Take it from me, it is permitted
O you who want to drink a draught of it
Lower yourself to the feet of men
I have lowered my head to every Shaykh
They are the Lords, they gave me a cool drink.

Another part of courtesy to the Shaykh is to sit between his hands in stillness and respect with a lowered voice and their heads and eyes lowered. They do not speak to him until he begins to speak to them.

Shaykh Harraq said, may Allah be pleased with him, 'If one of the fuqara is requested to speak, and if the speech is ordinary, then he should speak with a low voice. If the speech was about knowledges and realities, he should reflect and if his self is pre- sent, he should leave it, otherwise he should speak about it with the fewest words possible, because speech in the presence of the teacher is aversion.'

Then he said, 'One of the most amazing things that I have seen was that some people come to the man of perfection so that they may benefit from him, but then employ their tongues speaking about realities thinking that perhaps by that they would be near to his heart and be loved by him. I do not know whether that is because they believe that that will bring them nearer to him or whether it is to show him that they understand and taste.

All of it is ignorance, may Allah protect us from it.' I say, that in the state of discourse there is no harm if he speaks from his knowledge to help the Shaykh, but this must be done with humility and humbleness, and he must not go against his speech. If he does not understand the speech of the Shaykh, or thinks that it is against his point of view, he should say, 'I am sorry, I have not understood this. It appears to me like this and that, and so-and-so has said this and that', and all this expecting an explanation from them, not going against them.

If there is a disagreement between the Shaykh and some of the fuqara or others, he must support the Shaykh as much as he can, because this can bring affection from the Shaykh to him. If the Shaykh asks one of the fuqara to speak, then the least should be said, with humility, otherwise, silence is better. I have indicated this courtesy with some additions in my 'Aynia which I composed about courtesy. I said,

With the Shaykh there is a courtesy, if the murid does not
have it, he is lost in the river of separation.
Humility, fear, sincerity, love, intellect,
and perfection is gathered in him.
Do not raise your voice if he is present
Do not laugh, there are disasters in laughter.
Do not ever go against him, he is following by
the light of the witnessing of the inner sight.
Do not glance at a water other than him,
Or you will be thrown, broken, wasted with thirst.
Do not leave the cover of an instruction which
Supports you with lights from it, successively,
Until you see that the time of maturity has come
And in fixity you have become known.
You will be supported by lights from every aspect
And you will give drink to the people
who are following.

more to follow...

Posts: 192
Post Re: Sh. ibn Ajiba: Basic Research travel & visiting Shaykh
on: April 20, 2013, 17:35

Then the author indicated the courtesy of those receiving them with respect
to those arriving, and he said:

It is an obligation on those who are resident to treat the newcomer with generosity. He visits the People in the protected zone, and that is only a mark of respect. They must greet the newcomer first, then feed him, then make him comfortable. Then they speak to him after that with light conversation, following the action of Ibrahim. They dislike questioning the newcomer, except about his Shaykh and students.

Here the author mentions six courtesies concerning those who are receiving the guest:

1. The first is to receive the one who is arriving with generosity, and this means to go and meet him with good care, and happiness, and to make him at ease. They should take him to a place where he is shown respect, like a house or a Zawiyya - and a house is better. When he is in the house, those who did not go out to meet him should come to see him, because the one who is visiting has more right to be greeted first, except in Makkah. In that case, the visitor must go first to greet those who are living near the Protected House of Allah, as a mark of respect to the House. This is what is meant by the verse.

2. The second courtesy of those who are receiving the guest, is to begin by greeting him first. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace, said, 'Anyone entering who is startled or perplexed should be greeted first. Whoever is feeding someone who is hungry should give him something to eat first.' This is what was indicated in the phrase 'they must greet the new comer first'.

3. The third courtesy is quickly to give him something to eat. This food is called 'Qiran,' which means whatever is ready without effort. This is something which should be hurried. One poet made a composition on this and said:

Hurry - with turning-to-Allah, and whatever is
ready for the guest, and burial,
To marry a virgin, and to repay a du'a.

4. The fourth courtesy of those who are receiving the guest is to show generosity in food without effort and without negligence. The sufi does not burden himself, nor does he put a burden on others. There should not be over spending. As-Salmi says, 'When Abu Hafs arrived at al-Junayd's he made a large effort to serve him. Abu Hafs denied it and said, "If you come to Khorrason, I will show you what is the proper thing to do." He was asked what it was, and he said, "You turn my companions effeminate by giving them all sorts of food and treats every day The proper thing to do with us is not to make effort." Then he said to him, "If the fuqara come to you, serve them without great effort, so that if you become hungry they become hungry with you, and if you are full they are full with you, so that they come and go the same way you do." '

5. The fifth courtesy is to speak to him with a light speech, as Ibrahim, peace be upon him, did. He began by greeting them, and then he gave them food, and then he spoke with them, as is mentioned in the Qur'an concerning the guests of Ibrahim. Ibrahim, peace be upon him, said, 'What is it that you desire, O messenger?' The author indicated this by saying, 'Then they speak to him after that with light conversation, following the action of Ibrahim.'

6. The sixth courtesy of those who receive the guest is that they should not ask him about the states of this world. This is not interesting, and it hardens the heart. The author indicated this when he said, 'They dislike questioning the newcomer'. The source of what the author has mentioned is what as- Salmi, may Allah be pleased with him, said, 'The residents must greet him first. The one who arrives must be greeted first, except if he is in Makkah. He must visit the ones who live near the House of Allah.

Then, whatever is pre sent of food must be given to him, without effort, so it is said that the courtesy to the guest is to greet him and then to give him something, like the Prophet Ibrahim, peace be upon him, did. They entered upon him and he brought them a calf. Allah the Exalted said, 'You have an excellent example in Ibrahim and those with him.' The guest must not be questioned about the affairs of this world, but must be asked about the news of his Shaykhs and companions and the brothers who help each other to good deeds.'

Posts: 192
Post Re: Sh. ibn Ajiba: Basic Research travel & visiting Shaykh
on: April 20, 2013, 17:35

Then the author indicated that awrad must be continued during travel, and he said:

They dislike preventing him from doing his awrad, how could they do this when he came for increase?

I say that awrad are what is made a practice for the murid by the Shaykh or whatever the murid has taken as a practice for himself. The meaning here is that whatever he used to do before travelling he should continue to do when he travels. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace, said, 'The most loved action to Allah is what is done regularly, even if it is a little.'

This of course is according to what is possible as otherwise travelling would be very difficult. Something becomes difficult during travel which was not difficult when at rest. He will have his reward anyway, even if he does not do it.In the hadith we find, 'If a man is sick, or travelling, he must do whatever he used to do when he was healthy or at rest.' Yes, reflection and consideration must not be left if he is one of its people.

The same is true of discourse. How can he leave his awrad completely when he is travelling to seek inward increase? One of the Shaykhs used to say, 'Invoke Allah when you are in expansion, and reflect when you are in contraction, and praise Allah in every state, and do not leave your wird. If you miss it at night, then make it up in the daytime. If you travel, do all the invocation of your wird, or leave it.'

Then the author said:

He who travels for the desire of the self will be ordered to remain seated.

I say that this is very clear. We have already seen this meaning many times, especially in the narration concerning Abu'l Hasan ash-Shadhili, may Allah be pleased with him. In most cases, the one who does not have a Shaykh of Instruction travels for the desire of the self, except for the extraordinary. No one leaves the desires of the self except by keeping company with the one who has left them, and Allah knows best. As-Salmi said, 'If the faqir enters a town in which there are many Zawiyyas, he must go to the biggest one, where the most fuqara are.' I say that this is if they are all part of his Tariqa.

Otherwise, he goes to the people of the same Tariqa as his. The faqir must camp in places where there are pure places and running water. I have heard from Abu Tahir al-Ashqar who said, 'I have a fine faqir who keeps me company. Every time we go to a place, he goes to check on the places of purification. If he finds them clean and sound, he feels at ease in the place and will eat whatever food he is given. If he does not find it this way, he does not eat the food of the place, and says, "This is a disaster, there is no lavatory here." '

If he enters a town in which there are no fuqara, he goes to the ones who love fuqara and have the best trust in them and the strongest inclination. If he enters a house, he must take a place and take off his clothes in secret. When he removes his clothes he must begin with the left hand side, and then the right hand side, and when putting them on he must begin with the right hand side. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and give him peace, said, 'If one of you puts on his shoes, let him begin with the right one, and when he removes them, let him begin with the left.'

Then the faqir must go to the place of purification and do wudu and then he must pray two raka'as. If there is a Shaykh there, he must go to him and kiss his head, unless the visitor is an adolescent, in which case he must kiss his hand.

Part of the courtesy of travelling is that whoever wants to travel must learn the wisdom of travelling. This refers to shortening the prayer, the rules of tayammum, etc. of what is necessary to the traveller. Shaykh Abu Yaqub as-Soussi, may Allah be pleased with him, said,

'The traveller needs four things in his travel, otherwise he should not travel:

1. The first is knowledge that will regulate him.
2. A scrupulousness that will veil him.
3. Behaviour that will protect him.
4. A certainty that will carry him.'

Abu Ru'aym was asked about the courtesy of the traveller, and he said, 'His yearning must not precede his footsteps, wherever he stops is his house.' Part of the courtesy of travelling is, if there is no Muqaddim among them and no Shaykh, they must choose one as Muqaddim to which they refer.

As-Salmi said, concerning the courtesy of keeping company, 'Part of their courtesy if they gather is that they bring someone forward so that they can refer to him and rely upon him. He must have the best intellect, the highest yearning and the highest state. He must be the one with the most knowledge of the School and the noblest.' The Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace, said, 'The Imam of the people is the one who most reads the Book of Allah. If they are all equal, then the one who has more knowledge of fiqh.

If they are all equal, then the oldest. If they are all equal, the one who migrated earliest, then the one with the most excellent behaviour and the most perfect courtesy.' Following this, we would say that the one who met the Shaykh first should lead. Part of the courtesy is that none of them say, 'This is mine and that is yours', or 'if it were not for this, that would not have happened' or 'perhaps...', or 'why did you do this and why did you do that...' and so on.

This is the behaviour of the common people. There is no exchange of insults among the sufis. It is said that the sufi neither insults nor is insulted, and fighting does not happen among them, nor heated discussions, nor mockery. Everyone among them is like a son of a great one or like the father of a small one, and to the equal like a brother, and to the parents and to the teachers like a slave.

This is not merely specific to travel but is the courtesy in keeping company all the time. But it applies especially to travel because travelling reveals fault and defect. No one remains in his state during travelling, except the truthful ones.

Part of the courtesy of travelling is that when one is near a town he says, 'There is no god but Allah alone, with no associates. And He is powerful over all things. To Him belongs the Kingdom and to Him belongs the praise. Returning, worshipping, prostrating to our Lord, and Praising Him. Allah is truthful with His promise, and He gives victory to His slaves and defeated the parties alone.' The traveller continues to say this until he enters the town itself. When he enters the town he says, '0 Allah, give us stability in it and give us Ihsan.' When he enters upon his family he says, 'Returning to our neighbours, according to what is possible for him.

He should enter at the beginning of the day and not at night-time. If this is not possible, he must send a messenger to tell his family. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace, counselled against visiting one's family at night, and Allah the Exalted knows best, and success is with Allah.

Then the author indicated the eighth rule, which is the rule of begging, and he said: ………………

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